The Framework is an over 700-page document created by the CA Department of Education (CDE) and designed to inform public school officials how to implement Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE). The excerpts below are taken directly from it. Beginning in grade school, these excerpts clearly convey the intention of the CDE to advance a worldview that encourages children to become sexual at the earliest age possible and sees sexual orientation and gender as existing along a spectrum of feelings and identities independent from biology and anatomy.

Kindergarten – 3rd Grade

Chapter 3

In Kindergarten through 3rd Grade children are introduced to the idea that gender does not necessarily match one’s reproductive organs. They are asked to identify what makes for a “Trusted Adult” and to identify the Trusted and Non-Trusted Adults in their own family networks. They are also taught to identify reproductive organs at this age. The idea of sexual “consent” is introduced, along with examples of alternative family structures.

“Dispelling myths about gender expectations in kindergarten can lay the groundwork for acceptance, inclusiveness, and an anti-bullying environment in schools. Gender non-conformity and physical characteristics are often at the root of many forms of bullying.” (Lines 1156 – 1158)

“Students must learn that they have the right to determine who gets to touch their bodies and when, even if someone is considered a safe or trusted adult—this includes parents, guardians, or caretakers (K.1.5.S, Essential Concepts).” (Lines 1345 – 1347)

“[I]it is never too early to teach children about consent and empower children to set boundaries…” (Lines 1358 – 1359)

“Some children may experience abuse by a parent, guardian, or caretaker, so it is important to help children identify multiple trusted adults and think critically about what makes an adult “trusted” (K.1.4.G, K.1.3.M, Essential Concepts; K.3.1.M, Accessing Valid Information).” (Lines 1368 – 1371)

“On a large piece of paper, students draw three circles, labeled school, home, community with teacher assistance. Students draw pictures, glue cutouts, or write names of trusted adults in the appropriate circle. At the top of the paper are the words, Trusted Adults (K.1.3.M, Essential Concepts; K.3.1.M, Accessing Valid Information).” (Lines 1574 – 1578)

“After reading the book, The Great Big Book of Families by Mary Hoffman (2010) or Families Are Different by Nina Pellergrini (1991), students learn that there are different family structures in our society and that all family structures are valid. For example, there are immigrant families; families with lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender parents, guardians, or caretakers and children…” (Lines 1654 – 1662)

“When providing instruction on sexual and reproductive organs, teachers can introduce the concept that gender does not always match the sexual and reproductive organs described. For example, teachers may share, “In the classroom, we may use the term ‘female reproductive organs’ but some people who identify as male have these organs. The actual anatomical name for organs is utilized.” (Lines 3090 – 3095)

Grades Four Through Six

Chapter 4

In Grades 4 through 6, children are taught that gender is not “binary” and that associating gender and one’s reproductive organs is a “negative stereotype.” The use of “preferred gender pronouns” is introduced. At this age children are also taught about sexual self-stimulation.

“Comprehensive sexual health instruction must also include gender, gender expression, gender identity, and the harmful outcomes that may occur from negative gender stereotypes (EC section 51933[d][6]). Sexual health instruction is most effective when provided in an open, safe, supportive, inclusive, and judgment-free learning environment. While some teachers may prefer to separate students by gender during sexual health education, this is not recommended. Receiving puberty and sexual health education separately can foster anxiety and misinformation between genders and allow for some students to be misgendered, or placed in a group that does not reflect their gender identity.” (Lines 1514 – 1522)

“While recognizing that gender is not binary, the use of “boys/girls” and “male/female” is intentional in this chapter to accommodate the developmental stage of fifth graders who are more concrete learners than students in middle or high school. More inclusive terms related to gender identity will be used in higher grades.” (Lines 1528 – 1531)

“To first initiate dialogue for the group chat, teachers can start by reading to students carefully selected excerpts from books on puberty such as; Will Puberty Last My Whole Life? REAL Answers to REAL Questions From Preteens About Body Changes, Sex, and Other Growing-Up Stuff by Julie Metzger (2012); Sex, Puberty, and All That Stuff: A Guide to Growing Up (2014) by Jacqui Bailey; and LGBTQ+ inclusive books such as George by Alex Gina (2015); and Sex is a Funny Word: A Book about Bodies, Feelings, and YOU by Cory Silverberg (2015).” (Lines 1543 – 1550)

“For additional resources on how to support transgender and gender non-conforming students in the classroom, visit the GLSEN website.” (Lines 1578 – 1580)

“Teachers should normalize sexual feelings and explain to students these feelings do not mean that students should feel pressured to participate in sexual activities. If the topic of masturbation is raised by a student, teachers may want to explain what masturbation is and that it is safe, normal, and not mentally or physically harmful. This is also an important time to discuss gender, gender roles, and gender expression as puberty can be a difficult time for all students. Educators should acknowledge this and create an environment that is inclusive and challenges binary concepts about gender.” (Lines 1569 – 1576)

“As students enter puberty, there is a heightened awareness of gender, physical differences, and attraction. It is important for students to recognize differences in growth and development, physical appearance, and perceived gender roles or gender socialization (5.1.6.G, Essential Concepts).” (Lines 1711 – 1714)

“Fifth-grade students will have an opportunity to learn that gender is not strictly defined by physical anatomy or sex assigned at birth. Rather, students understand that gender refers to attitudes, feelings, characteristics, and behaviors that a given culture associates with being male or female, sometimes labeled “masculine” and “feminine.” Moreover, a person’s gender identity refers to their sense of self, while gender expression refers to their outward gender presentation including physical appearance and behaviors.” (Lines 1723 – 1729)

“Teachers should be mindful of personal biases and use gender neutral language when discussing peer and romantic relationships to be inclusive of all students in terms of gender identity, gender expression, and sexual attraction. For example, use “they” instead of using “he/she.”” (Lines 1732 – 1735)

“Challenging gender stereotypes may reduce discrimination, bullying, sexual harassment, and violence. This activity provides an opportunity for students to think outside the “gender box” and develop understanding and acceptance of others.” (Lines 1744 – 1747)

“Note to teachers: This lesson is designed to explore and challenge traditional social roles assigned to people based on their gender. The use of “girls” and “boys” is intentional to explore the gender binary.” (Lines 1748 – 1750)

“Box Exercise:

Ms. J prepares two sheets of flip-chart paper to create “gender boxes.” Leaving room around the margins, she draws a large box on each sheet of paper with the word “BOY” on the top of one sheet, and “GIRL” on the top of the other. (Lines 1762 – 1764)

Ms. J then asks the students to think about what happens when people don’t conform and don’t fit within the box. (Lines 1790 -1791)

Ms. J explains that family members and parents, guardians, and caretakers influence our ideas about gender before we are able to explore and make decisions about what colors, toys, or activities we like. Ms. J tells students that differences in how we express our gender are normal and people are unique. (Lines 1825 – 1829)

“As students learn about bullying and its harmful effects, they also learn to object appropriately to teasing or bullying of peers that is based on personal characteristics, spiritual beliefs, gender, gender expression, and sexual orientation (6.8.2.M, Health Promotion).” (Lines 3000 – 3004)

“Ask students to present real examples of bullying or sexual harassment that they have seen in the media or someone they know may have experienced.” (Lines 3048 – 3050)

Grades Seven and Eight

Chapter 5

In Middle School, children are introduced to exercises to practice negotiating “consent” for various sexual acts, including intercourse and oral sex. The “Barrier Method” and condom demonstrations are shown, where dental dams are used to minimize the spread of STDs during sex. The use of preferred gender pronouns is further encouraged. The idea of “spiritual abuse” is introduced, which is defined as parents and other adults who don’t acknowledge subjective gender identities. Middle Schools are asked to partner with various LGBT groups to form campus clubs for the promotion of LGBT lifestyles and “gender justice.”

“The usage of LGBTQ+ throughout this document is intended to represent an inclusive and ever-changing spectrum and understanding of identities. Historically, the acronym included lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender but has continued to expand to include queer, questioning, intersex, asexual, allies, and alternative identities (LGBTQQIAA), as well as expanding concepts that may fall under this umbrella term in the future.” (Lines 675 – 679)

Classroom Example: Sexual Health and Healthy Relationships Scenarios (Line 770)
Purpose of Lesson: In this activity, students explore vignettes that encourage them to consider various relationship outcomes by discovering their own solutions to scenarios posed using a theater- or performance-based format. (Lines 771 – 773)

Some of the scenarios Ms. G shares are:

  • Two students are at a party. One asks the other for oral sex.
  • Mother and daughter Scenario: Daughter asks mom if she will take her to get birth control. Mom replies, “Why do you want birth control? Are you having sex?”
  • A couple is dating and one partner wants to have sexual intercourse. The other partner does not.
  • Two people are kissing and one partner pulls out a condom. The other partner says “Let’s not bother.”(795 – 803)

As a follow-up activity, Ms. G distributes cards listing examples of relationship behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone, texting each other every day, hanging out during lunch, holding hands, hugging, kissing, flirting, cuddling, hanging out outside of school, touching your hair, oral sex, sexual intercourse, having an exclusive relationship, marriage, having children, and getting tested for STI/HIV together). (Lines 822 – 826)

“Barrier Method Demonstration… A condom (internal/female and external/male condom) and dental dam is shown as an example. Alternatively, a demonstration can be provided with students individually practicing the step-by-step process on a penis model. Alternatively, students can place the steps, displayed on cards, in the correct order and show examples of internal/female and external/male. For teaching methods, health education teachers should reference current medically accurate instructional resources online and show examples of male and female condoms and dental dams. In addition to skill demonstration, students also apply a decision-making model to evaluate the value of using condoms for STI and pregnancy prevention” (Lines 886 -895)

“Students understand from learning in earlier grade levels that gender is not strictly defined by biology and sexual anatomy. This understanding promotes an inclusive environment where students feel accepted and are accepting of others. To be inclusive of all students in terms of gender identity and sexual attraction, health education teachers and other educators must be mindful of personal biases and use gender neutral language when discussing peer and romantic relationships. It is important not to assume a student’s identified gender pronoun based on sex assigned at birth or appearance. Some students may identify with the traditional masculine/feminine pronouns “he/she,” “him/her,” and “his/hers,” while some may prefer pronouns such as “they,” “them,” and “theirs” as a singular pronoun. Using “they,” “them,” and “theirs” is considered gender neutral or non-binary and can also be used in an effort to be inclusive of various personal identities. In addition, the term “partner” should be used in place of or in addition to “boyfriend/girlfriend” or “husband/wife” to avoid assumptions about gender and sexual orientation. Some students may be non-monogamous and the term “partner(s)” may also be used to be more inclusive. (Lines 943 – 957)


  • Encouraging personal growth and goals
  • Offering comfort

Consensual Physical Affection

  • Getting consent for physical affection and sexual activity
  • Respecting boundaries

Negotiation & Compromise

  • Having discussions instead of arguments
  • Being willing to find middle ground
  • Not always being the one to give in or compromise

(Line 978)

(Lines 991 – 992)

Purpose of Lesson: … Students should also understand that all forms of abuse can happen to anyone, at any age and at any stage in a relationship, including marriage.

… The group assigned to discuss spiritual abuse expresses having difficulty coming up with examples. Ms. L explains that spiritual abuse can include abuse related to spiritual beliefs, culture, or an individual’s sense of self. (1055 – 1057)

… Examples for spiritual abuse include using spiritual beliefs to justify abuse, insisting on rigid gender roles… (Lines 1086 – 1087)

“Partnering with your school: Plan a campus awareness event for World AIDS Day (December 1) to educate peers and help to dispel common stereotypes about people living with HIV (7–8.8.2.G, Health Promotion). Partner with the GSA Network (transgender and queer youth uniting for racial and gender justice) to create an LGBTQ+ student-run club (7–8.8.1.G, Health Promotion).” (Lines 1284 – 1288)

“Partnering with your school: No Name Calling Week occurs every January around the Martin Luther King, Jr., holiday and is inspired by the young adult novel The Misfits by James Howe. The story highlights the struggles of four students trying to survive seventh grade while being taunted for their height, weight, intelligence, sexual orientation, or gender identity.” (Lines 1602 – 1606)

“Partnering with your school: Students can become school advocates for mental, emotional, and social health by promoting a positive and respectful school environment. They can model behavior outlined in CASEL’s Framework for Social and Emotional Learning core competencies of social and self-awareness and self-management in actions towards peers and community members that are based on perceived personal characteristics or sexual orientation (7–8.8.1.M, 7–8.8.2.M, Health Promotion).” (Lines 2230 – 2235)

Grades Nine Through Twelve

Chapter 6

In High School, the normalization of same-sex relationships and fluid gender identities established in lower grades is further reinforced. Students are now taught to see gender identity and expression along a spectrum of possibilities. At this age, students are taught and encouraged to access off-campus providers of contraceptives, STD and pregnancy services without parental involvement or knowledge. Schools are encouraged to bring in speakers from various LGBT organizations. Students are encouraged to become activists for such organizations. The idea of Spiritual Abuse by gender conforming adults is also reinforced. Students are also taught, as an “Essential Concept”, to consider themselves a “global” (as opposed to American citizens).

“LGBTQ content is not considered comprehensive sexual health education, nor HIV prevention education, and thus may not be opted out of as a stand-alone topic. Because California law protects students against discrimination on the basis of gender or sexual orientation, schools may not facilitate the selective opt-out of LGBTQ-related content in the context of comprehensive sexual health and HIV prevention education. General instruction or programming relating to LGBTQ people and issues is not subject to parental opt-out (EC 51932[b]).” (Lines 611 – 618)

“Instruction and materials on sexual health content must affirmatively recognize diverse sexual orientations and include examples of same-sex relationships and couples. Comprehensive sexual health instruction must also include gender, gender expression, gender identity, and the harmful outcomes that may occur from negative gender stereotypes.” (Lines 632 – 636)

“Adolescents are developing the attitudes, knowledge, and skills needed to become sexually healthy adults (SIECUS 2016). The SIECUS (n.d.) states, “Sexuality education is a lifelong learning process of acquiring information. As young people grow and mature, they need access to accurate information about their sexuality.” (Lines 693 – 696)

Another creative writing assignment is for students to write a monthly column for the school newspaper specific to growth, development, and sexual health. The column can be formatted as a “Dear Abby” or Love Line approach where students research responses to questions submitted by other students (Lines 747 – 750)

Where Do I Go to Get Tested? Where Do I Go for Contraceptives?
Working in groups, students research local community resources where teens can go to get tested for STI/HIV and pregnancy and to obtain contraceptives. Low and no cost alternatives such as public health clinics should be mentioned. Students investigate the programs that help pay for these preventive medical services such as Family PACT or Medi-Cal. They also research California laws regarding minors’ access to reproductive health care, including the right to excuse themselves from campus to obtain confidential medical services without parental permission or notification and the right to confidentiality in insurance under the Confidential Health Information Act. Students strategize on creative and concise ways to disseminate the information. (Lines 863 – 872)

“Students may not conform to the social norms of binary gender identities of male and female (e.g., gender non-binary, gender nonconforming, androgynous, genderqueer, gender fluid), and it is important to be as sensitive and responsive to students’ needs as possible. Be mindful of students’ identified gender pronouns and be aware not to make assumptions based on appearance.” (Lines 1012 – 1017)

(Line 1026)

“Gender and sexuality are often fluid and do not always fit neatly into these categories. (Lines 1027 – 1028)

(Lines 1032 – 1033)

“Invite a guest speaker from a local LGBTQ+ center to provide support and information regarding gender and sexuality. It is beneficial to have representatives from different organizations and diverse cultures and ethnicities. This diversity may help students who are struggling with or exploring their identity or acknowledging attractions that may differ from their peers.” (Lines 1035 – 1039)

“Students can organize a Diversity Day that brings awareness to these differences and celebrates diversity of all kinds on campus. Many high school campuses have a Genders-Sexualities Alliance (GSA) or LGBTQ+ club that can provide support for students as well as resources for students wanting more information. If a student club does not exist, teachers can consider leading an effort to begin one with students. Resources to support these efforts can be found at GLSEN.” (Lines 1050 – 1056)

(Line 1098)

(Line 1294)

“Using these definitions, students are able to analyze and conclude that consent cannot occur if someone is unconscious or under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Students in their teenage years may be more likely to use alcohol and other drugs than in younger years, and they should be aware of the relationship between these substances and sexual activity. Because alcohol and other drugs can lower inhibitions, they are common facilitators of sexual activity including non-consensual sexual activity (9–12.1.9.A, Essential Concepts). The potential for non-consensual sexual activity increases if both individuals are under the influence of alcohol or drugs.” (Lines 1296 – 1303)

“[I]t is important for students to determine their own personal boundaries and practice affirmative consent and refusal skills (9–12.7.6.M, Practicing Health-Enhancing Behaviors).” (Lines 1323 – 1325)

Essential Concepts

Global Citizens.

Students develop as global citizens by watching documentaries such as: (1) PBS’s Sick Around the World (2008) that compares the U.S. healthcare system to five other countries medical systems; (2) PBS’s RX for Survival: A Global Health Challenge (2005) that documents key milestones in public health; (3) Unnatural Causes; Is Inequality Making Us Sick? (2008) that examines the racial and socioeconomic disparities in health; (4) Straight Laced that features teens speaking about gender and sexuality; and (5) 13th (2016) a documentary on the intersection of race, justice, and mass incarceration in the U.S.

Access and Equity

Chapter 7

For all CSE instruction, school districts are encouraged to “continuously strive for social justice, access, and equity.” Schools are instructed to teach an “infinite number of ways an individual may identify or choose to express their individuality and sense of self… gender non-binary, gender non-conforming, androgynous, gender queer, gender fluid.” Teachers are taught to use preferred gender pronouns and are encouraged to post “pride flags” and “safe-zone” stickers. They are reminded that students in California have the right to participate in sports and use facilities consistent with their gender identity, irrespective of the gender listed on their records.”

“Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Teaching”

“In order to create truly equitable classrooms, schools, and districts—ones that support all students’ achievement—teachers and all school staff should continuously strive for social justice, access, and equity.” (Lines 138 – 141)

“Students Who Identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, or Questioning”

“All California’s children and adolescents have the fundamental right to be respected and feel safe in their school environment, yet many students do not feel supported in expressing their gender, gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation. California EC section 210.7 defines gender as sex and includes a person’s gender identity and gender expression. Gender expression refers to a person’s gender-related appearance and behavior whether or not stereotypically associated with the person’s assigned sex at birth. Gender identity refers to the gender with which a person identifies and may not necessarily match an individual’s sex assigned at birth. Sexual orientation refers to a person’s enduring pattern of romantic and sexual attraction to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender. There are an infinite number of ways an individual may identify or choose to express their individuality and sense of self. This list is also expansive as it relates to gender, and students may not conform within social norms of the binary gender identities of male and female (e.g., gender non-binary, gender non-conforming, androgynous, gender queer, gender fluid). It is important to remember a person’s gender and sexuality identity do not necessarily correlate with their activity, and educational approaches need to be identity-sensitive, but behavior-focused, insomuch as a primary goal of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities as well as the living and working conditions that influence health (Society for Public Health Education 2018). That is, if a male doesn’t identify as gay or bi, but still has sex with other men, then discussions that are only about “gay” sex, for example, can miss important aspects of actual human behaviors.” (Lines 722 – 745)

“General recommendations from the GLSEN (GLSEN 2015) for schools regarding students in this diverse population include the following:

• “Ensure the classroom environment is inclusive by using posters or images that depict students and people of all abilities. Consider hanging a small rainbow pride flag or safe zone sticker that signifies that all gender identities and expressions are welcome in the classroom. Partner with school administration to ensure that this inclusive environment is consistent throughout the entire school campus.
• “Encourage the formation and continuation of LGBTQ+ student groups such as Genders & Sexualities Alliance Network (GSA) which improve the school environment and inclusive climate.
• “Consider seeking professional development opportunities in LGBTQ+ issues.”
(Lines 788 – 819)

“It is important the school community understands and supports transgender students’ right to be addressed by the correct name and pronouns and access facilities and programs consistent with their gender identity, in addition to avoiding language and teaching that is exclusionary of transgender students. The same is true of students who identify as non-binary, meaning their gender is neither strictly male nor female. California EC Section 221.5(f) specifies that students in California have the right to participate in school activities, including sports, and use facilities consistent with their gender identity, irrespective of the gender listed on their records.” (Lines 830 – 838)